The objectives of this article were to review the literature on endodontic procedures published in various journals during the last two decades. The various obturation techniques, viz. single -cone technique, multiple-cone technique, chemo-plasticized gutta-percha, thermo-plasticized injectable gutta-percha, obturation using pastes, and SPAD/resorcinol formaldehyde, have been described and compared. The various methods used for qualitative and quantitative evaluation of micro-leakage, viz. micro-computed tomography, radiography, CT scans, cone-beam computed tomography, scanning electron microscope, fluid filtration method, dye penetration test, and bacterial leakage technique, have been described and studied by various researchers. The consultation with endodontic experts indicates that substantial improvements can be recommended on obturation procedure, and also, a few modifications may be required in obturation devices from productivity as well as ergonomics point of view. A total of 250 research papers and patents (19 Nos) have been shortlisted for conducting literature survey. The shortlisted paper was classified into various categories, viz. root canal obturation techniques (63 Nos), micro-leakage evaluation techniques (80 Nos), and root canal obturation sealing ability (75 Nos), root canal obturator design (36 Nos), and root canal geometrical parameters (25 Nos). The following statements are deduced from the above literature survey: (1) End outcome of the comparison of the various techniques revealed that warm vertical condensation is the best technique. (2) Consultation with the experts revealed that there is a need of obturator device which combines heat and vibration source. (3) The fluid filtration is the best technique as compared to other experimental techniques. Micro-computed tomography is the best qualitative and nondestructive technique. (4) There is a need for the development of an analytical model which can quantify the root canal obturation.