In the present study, response surface methodology (RSM) has been used to optimize roller burnishing process for aluminum alloy 63400 grade. Single roller burnishing tool (carbide) is used to burnish round aluminum alloy. Experiments were performed with Box and Wilson Central Composite Design (CCD). The machining factors controlled during experimentation are speed, feed, force and number of tool passes. The response parameters are surface roughness and microhardness. The most significant control factors on the surface roughness and microhardness were determined by analysis of variance (ANOVA). A controllable process parameter is correlated with surface roughness and microhardness by mathematical model. A quadratic regression analysis is performed to compute the correlation coefficient between the experimental and predicted values. The optimum surface roughness and microhardness foreseen by the model is found to agree well with the results of the experiment. To find the optimum value of both the response, desirability approach was used. The input parameters with most desirability value are selected as the optimum solution. Hence, the most desirable burnished condition desirability value 0.872 is speed 37.9m/min, feed 0.5mm/rev, force 35.49N and number of tool passes four. Surface roughness obtained is 0.524μ m and microhardness is 125.02HV. This is the optimum condition for minimum surface roughness and maximum microhardness. The optimum surface finish and microhardness predicted by the model are found to agree well with the results of the experiment.