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Mitigation of sulfation in lead acid battery towards life time extension using ultra capacitor in hybrid electric vehicle
, P.B. Karandikar, N.R. Kulkarni
Published in Elsevier Ltd
Volume: 34
Batteries act as one of the primary sources of energy for high power Hybrid Electric Vehicle (HEV). The life of the battery becomes a significant constraint while building an HEV. So researchers found Lithium-ion batteries are more suitable for HEV with a better lifecycle. But the manufacturing cost of Lithium-ion batteries is expensive. Thus, while designing an economic HEV, the cost of batteries also a constraint. In subsequent years, lead-acid batteries are found one of the best alternatives for lithium-ion. Sulfation is the main problem in lead-acid batteries. So de-sulfation is a solution to recover the sulphated lead-acid battery. But de-sulfation was not found as a better solution for preventing sulfation. Hence battery management system for proper charging or discharge is found as a passive solution for the sulfation. In literature, many methods are reviewed related to proper charging and a discharging controller which may trap in sulfation problem. Hence, this paper, an Atom Search Algorithm (ASA) based Hybrid Energy Storage System (HESS) is designed to enable proper charging and discharging controller for increasing the lifecycles of the lead-acid battery by avoiding sulfation. The lead-acid battery is connected with Ultra-Capacitor (UC) through a bidirectional DC-DC converter to enable proper charging and to discharge of controller in a. The lifetime extension of lead-acid battery is attained by maintaining the proper charging and discharging through the conservation of Depth of Charge (DOC) and State of Charge (SOC). The charging and discharging controller of the lead-acid battery are enabled by a rule-based control strategy in the converter. The optimal operation of the converter is to provide essential supply to meet the load drive cycle as well as battery charging progress. To avoid battery's dry conditions, UC is playing the leading role to supply by the converter. The controller action is performed through the consumption of the Fractional-Order Proportional Integral Derivative Controller (FOPID) in the bidirectional DC-DC converter. The optimal switching operations are selected with the utilisation of the ASA algorithm. The proposed method is implemented in MATLAB/ Simulink and contrasted with existing methods. Finally, the proposed method extends the lifecycles of the battery to 7500 cycles by proper charging and discharging controller. © 2020 Elsevier Ltd
About the journal
JournalData powered by TypesetJournal of Energy Storage
PublisherData powered by TypesetElsevier Ltd