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Nose-to-brain delivery of amisulpride-loaded lipid-based poloxamer-gellan gum nanoemulgel: in vitro and in vivo pharmacological studies
D Gadhave, S Tupe, , B Gorain, H Choudhury, C Kokare
Published in Elsevier B.V.
PMID: 34454028
Volume: 121050
Unfavorable side effects of available antipsychotics limit the use of conventional delivery systems, where limited exposure of the drugs to the systemic circulation could reduce the associated risks. The potential of intranasal delivery is gaining interest to treat brain disorders by delivering the drugs directly to the brain circumventing the tight junctions of the blood–brain barrier with limited systemic exposure of the entrapped therapeutic. Therefore, the present research was aimed to fabricate, optimize and investigate the therapeutic efficacy of amisulpride (AMS)-loaded intranasal in situ nanoemulgel (AMS-NG) in the treatment of schizophrenia. In this context, AMS nanoemulsion (AMS-NE) was prepared by employing aqueous-titration method and optimized using Box-Behnken statistical design. The optimized nanoemulsion was subjected to evaluation of globule size, transmittance, zeta potential, and mucoadhesive strength, which were found to be 92.15 nm, 99.57%, −18.22 mV, and 8.90 g, respectively. The AMS-NE was converted to AMS-NG using poloxamer 407 and gellan gum. Following pharmacokinetic evaluation in Wistar rats, the brain Cmax for intranasal AMS-NG was found to be 1.48-folds and 3.39-folds higher when compared to intranasal AMS-NE and intravenous AMS-NE, respectively. Moreover, behavioral investigations of developed formulations were devoid of any extrapyramidal side effects in the experimental model. Finally, outcomes of the in vivo hematological study confirmed that intranasal administration of formulation for 28 days did not alter leukocytes and agranulocytes count. In conclusion, the promising results of the developed and optimized intranasal AMS-NG could provide a novel platform for the effective and safe delivery of AMS in schizophrenic patients. © 2021 Elsevier B.V.
About the journal
JournalInternational Journal of Pharmaceutics
PublisherElsevier B.V.
Open AccessNo