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Removal of heavy metals from water: Technological advances and today's lookout through membrane applications
, Dhume S., Chendake Y.
Published in Cosmos Scholars Publishing House
Volume: 8
Issue: 1
Pages: 1 - 21
Water contamination by heavy metal is a great environmental concern. It leads to many health issues ranging from diarrhea, vomiting to life-threatening diseases like cancer, lung/kidney damage. This also affects soil biota/plant growth. Metal-ions have a tendency of bioaccumulation, hence pose a major issue upon entry in the food-cycle. Their removal from water is necessary before use for human/agricultural applications. Different methods reported for metal-ion separation are conventional methods viz. chemical-precipitation, ion-exchange, adsorption, coagulation, flocculation, flotation, electrochemical possess good separation efficiency, but the generation of a secondary pollutant, recovery issues restrict their applicability. Hence, there is a need of reliable techno-economical, environment-friendly, sustainable separation, recovery method. Membrane-based methods viz. reverse-osmosis, nanofiltration, electrodialysis, ultrafiltration has ability to treat water for heavy metal recovery without chemical contamination. Recovered materials can be recycled/utilized further. Among different membrane-based processes, micellar/polymer enhanced ultrafiltration requires chemical addition and affects purity. Electrodialysis, reverse-osmosis, nanofiltration processes require large energy/operational issues. Hence, simple ultrafiltration with membrane modification is preferable as low-energy requirements. This paper discusses details of conventional/advanced methods for heavy metal separation with the fundamental process, parameters, advantages/limitations. © 2021 Mahajan-Tatpate et al.; Licensee Cosmos Scholars Publishing House. This is an open access article licensed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/), which permits unrestricted, non-commercial use, distribution and reproduction in any medium, provided the work is properly cited.
About the journal
JournalInternational Journal of Membrane Science and Technology
PublisherCosmos Scholars Publishing House
Open AccessNo