Artificial bone modelling has been done in recent times in order to replicate the mechanical properties and microstructure of the human cancellous and cortical bone. The applications of artificial bone models include bone grafting and testing of orthopaedic instruments. The recent developments in this field make the use of natural polymers and bio-compatible metals to manufacture porous structures replicating bone properties. The aim of this review is to consolidate the research efforts done in the field of making artificial bone models of the human trabecular bone by studying the material and manufacturing aspects of the process. The article reviews the bone models under the categories of polymers and composites and metal scaffolds. A combination of natural polymers along with a bio-compatible synthetic polymer and bio-ceramic reinforcement has proven to be a suitable candidate in replicating the mechanical properties of the bone while ensuring bio-compatibility. Three manufacturing techniques were reviewed with respect to the ability to replicate the bone microstructure. SLM is a potential candidate in terms of design flexibility and manufacturing accuracy. A direction to future research in extending the application of artificial bone models to the testing of dental implants has also been provided. © 2020 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.