The materials used for biomedical applications include metal and their alloys, polymers, and ceramics. Of these, titanium (Ti) and titanium alloys are widely used as implant materials owing to its superior corrosion resistance and high mechanical strength. Although titanium has several advantages, being biologically inert, it cannot osseointegrate with the human cells. Thus, the surface of the titanium implant has a very important role, as it determines the rate of osseointegration and the success of the implant. The main objective of this review is to offer a thorough and detailed description of the most promising techniques used for the surface modification of titanium dental implants. A systematic classification of these methods is provided, followed by their advantages. Mechanical methods like acid etching and grit blasting, hydrogen peroxide treatment, acidic treatment, nitride coatings, hydroxyapatite coatings, metal oxide coatings and silver coatings have been analyzed and selected for this review. These methods have been experimentally proven to enhance the osseointegration rate, improving the biocompatibility and stability as well as the antibacterial properties of the implants. Thus, the surface modification of the titanium implant surface significantly improves the properties of the implant. However, further research is necessary to study the implant surface and the human cell interface in more detail and develop new surface modification techniques to manufacture implants with superior properties. © 2020 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.